1. Cavalcanti, D. D., Kalani, M. Y. S., Martirosyan, N. L., Eales, J., Spetzler, R. F., & Preul, M. C. Cerebral cavernous malformations: from genes to proteins to disease. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2012; 116(January), 122-132. doi:10.3171/2011.8.JNS101241
Nice (excruciatingly complete) reference for the genetic basis of cavernous malformations. Read the first page, and the conclusion.
2 A. Ciccarelli, O., & Chen, J. T. Editorial – MS cortical lesions on double inversion recovery MRI: Few but true. Neurology, 2012;78:296–297. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318245296f
2 B. Seewann, a, Kooi, E.-J., Roosendaal, S. D., Pouwels, P. J. W., Wattjes, M. P., van der Valk, P., Barkhof, F., et al. Postmortem verification of MS cortical lesion detection with 3D DIR. Neurology, 2012; 78: 302-308. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31824528a0
This article with its associated editorial point out the potential importance of double inversion recovery (DIR) imaging for evaluation of cortical MS plaques. Combined DIR/histopathology correlation showed that the majority of cortical lesions are still missed on DIR (sensitivity of 18%), but almost all lesions scored on DIR correspond to histopathologically proven lesions (specificity of 90%).
3. Ellingson, B. M., Cloughesy, T. F., Pope, W. B., Zaw, T. M., Phillips, H., Lalezari, S., Nghiemphu, P. L., et al. Anatomic localization of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylated and unmethylated tumors: A radiographic study in 358 de novo human glioblastomas. NeuroImage, 2012; 59(2), 908-16. Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.09.076
The authors used a new technique called Analysis of Differential Involvement (ADIFFI) maps and applied this technique to MGMT promoter methylated versus non-methylated tumors in order to determine whether the tumors are localized to a particular area of the brain more often than chance (n=358). They found a substantial lateralization of MGMT promoter methylated tumors to the left temporal lobe region, and lateralization of MGMT unmethylated tumors to the right hemisphere. The concept of such lateralization is foreign to my thinking about glioblastomas, but the authors make a very interesting case. The Discussion is worth reading carefully.
4. Hamamoto, H., Miyamoto, H., Doita, M., Takada, T., Nishida, K., & Kurosaka, M. Capability of Non-degenerated and Degenerated Discs in Producing Inflammatory Agents with or without Macrophage Interaction. Spine, 2012; 37: 161-167. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e31821a874b
Using a rat tail compression model to produce disc degeneration, the authors found that small amounts of IL-1 β and TNF- α were present at every stage of degeneration regardless of the presence or absence of macrophages. Not exciting from an imaging standpoint, but it does point to the state of science for disc degeneration…namely the biochemistry.
5. Kanno, H., Ozawa, H., Koizumi, Y., Morozumi, N., Aizawa, T., Kusakabe, T., Ishii, Y., et al. Dynamic change of dural sac cross-sectional area in axial loaded MRI correlates with the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Spine, 2012; 37: 207-213. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182134e73
The authors evaluated 88 patients with lumbar canal stenosis, looking at the dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA) in conventional MRI and axial loaded MRI using the DynaWell L-Spine system for compression (DynaWell Diagnostics, Las Vegas, NV). Axial loaded MRI demonstrated that changes in the DCSA significantly correlated with the severity of symptoms, which conventional MRI could not detect. No information is provided about patient comfort or satisfaction with the procedure, nor if any patients failed to complete the compression imaging.
6 A. Kano, H., Lunsford, L. D., Flickinger, J. C., Yang, H.-C., Flannery, T. J., Awan, N. R., Niranjan, A., et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations, Part 1: management of Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II arteriovenous malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2012; 116(January), 11-20. doi:10.3171/2011.9.JNS101740
6 B. Kano, H., Kondziolka, D., Flickinger, J. C., Yang, H.-C., Flannery, T. J., Niranjan, A., Novotny, J., et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations, Part 4: management of basal ganglia and thalamus arteriovenous malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2012; 116(January), 33-43. doi:10.3171/2011.9.JNS11175
These are two articles from large series of papers regarding stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of AVM’s, the full list being shown in the appendix to Part I. In part I, the authors evaluated the response to treatment in 217 patients with AVMs classified as SpetzlerMartin Grade I or II. They found that stereotactic radiosurgery is a gradually effective and relatively safe option for patients with smaller volume Spetzler-Martin Grade I or II AVMs who decline initial resection. Importantly, when an aneurysm is identified in such patients, additional endovascular or surgical strategies should be considered to reduce the risk of bleeding during the latency period (AVM bleeding after SRS in the presence or absence of an aneurysm was 28% versus 2.6% at 5 years). Part 4 evaluated 56 patients with AVMs of the basal ganglia and 77 with AVMs of the thalamus. The annual bleeding rate was 4.4% during the latency interval until obliteration occurred. The authors suggest that 3 years is a reasonable time period to allow for SRS obliteration of the AVM. If the AVM persists after this period, then additional management if the AVM should be considered.
7A. Lanzino, G. The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (Editorial). Journal of Neurosurgery, 2012; 116: 133-134. doi:10.3171/2011.8.JNS101767
7B. McDougall, C. G., Spetzler, R. F., Zabramski, J. M., Partovi, S., Hills, N. K., Nakaji, P., & Albuquerque, F. C. The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2012; 116: 135-144 . doi:10.3171/2011.8.JNS101767
Regardless of how the results are analyzed (intent-to-treat or as-treated), endovascular treatment is associated with a better functional outcome at 1 year. Case closed.
8. Passias, P. G., Ma, Y., Chiu, Y. L., Mazumdar, M., Girardi, F. P., & Memtsoudis, S. G. Comparative Safety of Simultaneous and Staged Anterior and Posterior Spinal Surgery. Spine, 2012; 37: 247-255. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e31821350d0
In this study, the authors analyzed population-based national hospital discharge data collected for the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and looked at circumferential noncervical spine fusions. They found that complications were more frequent among staged versus same-day surgery patients. They concluded that staging circumferential spine surgery procedures during the same hospitalization offers no mortality benefit.
9. Pedrini, E., Jennes, I., Tremosini, M., Milanesi, A., Mordenti, M., Parra, A., Sgariglia, F., et al. Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study in 529 Patients with Multiple Hereditary Exostoses: Identification of “Protective” and “Risk” Factors. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2011; 93(24): 2294-2302. doi:10.2106/JBJS.J.00949
Variables such as female sex, fewer than five skeletal sites with exostoses, EXT2 mutations, and absence of EXT1/2 mutations described patients with a mild phenotype. Malignant transformation was observed in 5% of patients, and no evidence of association between chondrosarcoma onset and EXT mutation, sex, severity of disease, or number of lesions was detected.
10. Zuo, J., Joseph, G. B., Li, X., Link, T. M., Hu, S. S., Berven, S. H., Kurhanewitz, J., et al. In vivo Intervertebral Disc Characterization using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and T1ρ Imaging: Association with Discography and Oswestry Disability Index and SF-36. Spine, 2012: 37; 214-221. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182294a63
Interesting study trying to tie everything together: The feasibility of in vivo MR spectroscopy of the intervertebral disc and evaluating the associations between spectroscopic parameters and imaging parameters (Pfirrmann grade, T1 rho, and disc height), discography status, and clinical assessment (SF-36 and ODI). The water/PG peak area ratio was related to discography status as well as clinical assessment.