Multimodal Imaging in Malignant Brain Tumors: Enhancing the Preoperative Risk Evaluation for Motor Deficits with a Combined Hybrid MRI-PET and Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Approach

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Patients with malignant brain tumors involving the central region underwent a hybrid O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine–PET-MR imaging and motor mapping by neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation. The spatial relationship between functional tissue and lesion volumes as depicted by structural and metabolic imaging was analyzed. Tumor infiltration of the M1 region or the corticospinal tract as depicted by FET-PET is highly indicative of motor impairment, better than contrast-enhanced T1WI alone, and is of predictive value for operative-risk evaluation.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Motor deficits in patients with brain tumors are caused mainly by irreversible infiltration of the motor network or by indirect mass effects; these deficits are potentially reversible on tumor removal. Here we used a novel multimodal imaging approach consisting of structural, functional, and metabolic neuroimaging to better distinguish these underlying causes in a preoperative setting and determine the predictive value of this approach.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Thirty patients with malignant brain tumors involving the central region underwent a hybrid O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine–PET-MR imaging and motor mapping by neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation. The functional maps served as localizers for DTI tractography of the corticospinal tract. The spatial relationship between functional tissue (motor cortex and corticospinal tract) and lesion volumes as depicted by structural and metabolic imaging was analyzed.

RESULTS

Motor impairment was found in nearly all patients in whom the contrast-enhanced T1WI or PET lesion overlapped functional tissue. All patients who functionally deteriorated after the operation showed such overlap on presurgical maps, while the absence of overlap predicted a favorable motor outcome. PET was superior to contrast-enhanced T1WI for revealing a motor deficit before the operation. However, the best correlation with clinical impairment was found for T2WI lesion overlap with functional tissue maps, but the prognostic value for motor recovery was not significant.

CONCLUSIONS

Overlapping contrast-enhanced T1WI or PET-positive signals with motor functional tissue were highly indicative of motor impairment and predictive for surgery-associated functional outcome. Such a multimodal diagnostic approach may contribute to the risk evaluation of operation-associated motor deficits in patients with brain tumors.

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Multimodal Imaging in Malignant Brain Tumors: Enhancing the Preoperative Risk Evaluation for Motor Deficits with a Combined Hybrid MRI-PET and Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Approach
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jross
Jeffrey Ross • Mayo Clinic, Phoenix

Dr. Jeffrey S. Ross is a Professor of Radiology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, and practices neuroradiology at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, Arizona. His publications include over 100 peer-reviewed articles, nearly 60 non-refereed articles, 33 book chapters, and 10 books. He was an AJNR Senior Editor from 2006-2015, is a member of the editorial board for 3 other journals, and a manuscript reviewer for 10 journals. He became Editor-in-Chief of the AJNR in July 2015. He received the Gold Medal Award from the ASSR in 2013.

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