Improved Leakage Correction for Single-Echo Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MRI Estimates of Relative Cerebral Blood Volume in High-Grade Gliomas by Accounting for Bidirectional Contrast Agent Exchange

Editor’s Choice

The authors’ hypothesis is that incorporating bidirectional contrast agent transport into the DSC MR imaging signal model will improve rCBV estimates in brain tumors. A unidirectional contrast agent extravasation model (Boxerman-Weisskoff) was compared with a bidirectional contrast agent exchange model. For both models, they compared the goodness of fit with the parent leakage-contaminated relaxation rate curves and the difference between modeled interstitial relaxation rate curves and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in 21 patients with glioblastoma. The authors conclude that the bidirectional model more accurately corrects for the T1 or T2* enhancement arising from contrast agent extravasation due to blood-brain barrier disruption in high-grade gliomas by incorporating interstitial washout rates into the DSC MR imaging relaxation rate model.

Abstract

Figure 4 from paper
Comparison of uncorrected, BW model–corrected, and bidir model–corrected rCBV in a GBM with T1-dominant leakage on average in contrast-enhancing voxels (first row) and a GBM with T2*-dominant leakage (second row). For T1-dominant leakage, mean tumor rCBV is underestimated by using the BW model compared with the bidir model, with the converse true for T2*-dominant leakage. Arrows depict regions of the tumor with large changes in estimated rCBV between leakage-correction models.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Contrast agent extravasation through a disrupted blood-brain barrier potentiates inaccurate DSC MR imaging estimation of relative CBV. We explored whether incorporation of an interstitial washout rate in a leakage-correction model for single-echo, gradient-echo DSC MR imaging improves relative CBV estimates in high-grade gliomas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We modified the traditional model-based postprocessing leakage-correction algorithm, assuming unidirectional contrast agent extravasation (Boxerman-Weisskoff model) to account for bidirectional contrast agent exchange between intra- and extravascular spaces (bidirectional model). For both models, we compared the goodness of fit with the parent leakage-contaminated relaxation rate curves by using the Akaike Information Criterion and the difference between modeled interstitial relaxation rate curves and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging by using Euclidean distance in 21 patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

RESULTS

The bidirectional model had improved Akaike Information Criterion versus the bidirectional model in >50% of enhancing tumor voxels in all 21 glioblastoma multiformes (77% ± 9%; P < .0001) and had reduced the Euclidean distance in >50% of enhancing tumor voxels for 17/21 glioblastoma multiformes (62% ± 17%; P = .0041). The bidirectional model and dynamic contrast-enhanced-derived kep demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.74 ± 0.13). On average, enhancing tumor relative CBV for the Boxerman-Weisskoff model exceeded that for the bidirectional model by 16.6% ± 14.0%.

CONCLUSIONS

Inclusion of the bidirectional exchange in leakage-correction models for single-echo DSC MR imaging improves the model fit to leakage-contaminated DSC MR imaging data and significantly improves the estimation of relative CBV in high-grade gliomas.

 

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Improved Leakage Correction for Single-Echo Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MRI Estimates of Relative Cerebral Blood Volume in High-Grade Gliomas by Accounting for Bidirectional Contrast Agent Exchange
jross
Jeffrey Ross • Mayo Clinic, Phoenix

Dr. Jeffrey S. Ross is a Professor of Radiology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, and practices neuroradiology at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, Arizona. His publications include over 100 peer-reviewed articles, nearly 60 non-refereed articles, 33 book chapters, and 10 books. He was an AJNR Senior Editor from 2006-2015, is a member of the editorial board for 3 other journals, and a manuscript reviewer for 10 journals. He became Editor-in-Chief of the AJNR in July 2015. He received the Gold Medal Award from the ASSR in 2013.