Imaging Features of Malignant Lacrimal Sac and Nasolacrimal Duct Tumors

Fellows’ Journal Club

This case series presents 18 patients with primary and secondary malignant lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct tumors and their pattern of tumor spread. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histology and, in 15/18 patients tumor involved both the lacrimal sac and duct at the time of diagnosis. In 11/16 patients on CT, the nasolacrimal bony canal was smoothly expanded without erosive changes. Tumor was not observed solely within the nasolacrimal duct in any patient. Only 1 patient presented with nodal metastasis and there was no intracranial tumor extension or perineural tumor spread. The authors conclude that malignant lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct tumors tend to expand the nasolacrimal bony canal, rather than erode it. CT was superior to MR imaging in characterizing expansion versus erosion of the nasolacrimal bony canal.

Summary

Figure 5 from paper
A 73-year-old woman with well-differentiated SCCA of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct. A, Post-contrast-enhanced CT demonstrates an enhancing tumor within the left lacrimal sac (arrow). B, At a slightly more inferior level (bone window), note the mild expansion of the lacrimal bony canal by tumor (arrow).

The purpose of this study was to present the imaging features of primary and secondary malignant lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct tumors and their pattern of tumor spread in 18 patients. The most common tumor histology in our series was squamous cell carcinoma. In 15/18 patients, tumor involved both the lacrimal sac and duct at the time of diagnosis. In 11/16 patients on CT, the nasolacrimal bony canal was smoothly expanded without erosive changes. The medial canthus region (16/18) was a frequent site of direct tumor spread. Two patients had intraconal orbital spread of tumor. Tumor spread to the sinus or nasal cavity was observed in 5/13 primary tumors. Only 1 patient presented with nodal metastasis. There was no intracranial tumor extension, perineural tumor spread along the infraorbital nerve, distant metastasis, or dacryocystocele formation in any of the patients at the time of diagnosis.

 

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Imaging Features of Malignant Lacrimal Sac and Nasolacrimal Duct Tumors
jross
Jeffrey Ross • Mayo Clinic, Phoenix

Dr. Jeffrey S. Ross is a Professor of Radiology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, and practices neuroradiology at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, Arizona. His publications include over 100 peer-reviewed articles, nearly 60 non-refereed articles, 33 book chapters, and 10 books. He was an AJNR Senior Editor from 2006-2015, is a member of the editorial board for 3 other journals, and a manuscript reviewer for 10 journals. He became Editor-in-Chief of the AJNR in July 2015. He received the Gold Medal Award from the ASSR in 2013.