McKeith IG, Boeve BF, Dickson DW, et al. Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: Fourth consensus report of the DLB Consortium. Neurology. 2017;65(12):1863-1872. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004058
The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium last reported on diagnosis and management in December 2005, and its recommendations have been widely cited for both clinical and research use. The revised DLB criteria which are presented incorporate new developments and result from a review process that combined the reports of 4 multidisciplinary, expert working groups with a meeting that included patient and care partner participation. Dementia, defined as a progressive cognitive decline of sufficient magnitude to interfere with normal social or occupational functions, or with usual daily activities, is an essential requirement for DLB diagnosis. Disproportionate attentional, executive function, and visual processing deficits relative to memory and naming are typical. DLB consciousness fluctuations are typically delirium-like, occurring as spontaneous alterations in cognition, attention, and arousal. They include waxing and waning episodes of behavioral inconsistency, incoherent speech, variable attention, or altered consciousness that involves staring or zoning out.
Recurrent, complex visual hallucinations occur in up to 80% of patients with DLB and are a frequent clinical signpost to diagnosis. They are typically well-formed, featuring people, children, or animals, sometimes accompanied by related phenomena including passage hallucinations (transient visual hallucinations consisting of people or animals that pass sideways out of the visual field), sense of presence, and visual illusions.
Spontaneous parkinsonian features, not due to antidopaminergic medications or stroke, are common in DLB, eventually occurring in over 85%. Parkinsonism in Parkinson disease (PD) is defined as bradykinesia in combination with rest tremor, rigidity, or both. Many DLB patients’ parkinsonism falls short of this, so documentation of only one of these cardinal features is required.
REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia manifested by recurrent dream …