Fellows’ Journal Club

Fellows’ Journal Club: Surveillance of Unruptured Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms Using Noncontrast 3D-Black-Blood MRI: Comparison of 3D-TOF and Contrast-Enhanced MRA with 3D-DSA

Fellows’ Journal Club

Sixty-four patients with 68 saccular unruptured intracranial aneurysms were recruited. Patients underwent 3T MR imaging with 3D-TOF-MRA, 3D black-blood MR imaging, and contrast-enhanced MRA, and they underwent 3D rotational angiography within 2 weeks. The neck, width, and height of the unruptured intracranial aneurysms were measured by 2 radiologists independently on 3D rotational angiography and 3 MR imaging sequences. 3D black-blood MR imaging demonstrates the best agreement with DSA, with the smallest limits of agreement and measurement error. 3D-TOF-MRA had the largest limits of agreement and measurement error. The authors conclude that 3D black-blood MR imaging achieves better accuracy for aneurysm size measurements compared with 3D-TOF, using 3D rotational angiography as a criterion standard.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

After publications on the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy by stent retrievers in acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion, alternative endovascular approaches have been proposed using first-line aspiration catheters. Several devices are currently available to perform A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique. The Sofia catheter aspiration has been widely used by interventionalists, but data are scarce about its efficacy and safety. Our aim was to report our multicenter thrombectomy experience with first-line Sofia catheter aspiration and to identify independent prognostic factors of clinical and procedural outcomes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We performed a retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic Stroke multicentric registry. Data from consecutive patients who benefited from thrombectomy with a first-line Sofia approach between January 2013 and April 2018 were studied. We excluded other first-line approaches (stent retriever or combined aspiration and stent retriever) and extracranial occlusions. Baseline characteristics, procedural data, and angiographic and clinical outcomes were analyzed.

RESULTS

During the study period, 296 patients were treated. Mean age and initial NIHSS score were, respectively, 69.5 years and 16. Successful reperfusion, defined by the modified TICI

Fellows’ Journal Club: First-Line Sofia Aspiration Thrombectomy Approach within the Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic Stroke Multicentric Registry: Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Factors of Success

Fellows’ Journal Club

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic Stroke multicentric registry. Data from consecutive patients who benefited from thrombectomy with a first-line Sofia approach between January 2013 and April 2018 were studied. We excluded other first-line approaches (stent retriever or combined aspiration and stent retriever) and extracranial occlusions. During the study period, 296 patients were treated. Mean age and initial NIHSS score were, respectively, 69.5 years and 16. Successful reperfusion, defined by the modified TICI 2b/3, was obtained in 86.1%. Complete reperfusion (modified TICI 3) was obtained in 41.2%. A first-pass effect was achieved in 24.2%. A rescue stent retriever approach was required in 29.7%. The first-line contact aspiration approach appeared safe and efficient with Sofia catheters. These devices achieved very high reperfusion rates with a low requirement for stent retriever rescue therapy, especially for M1 occlusions.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

After publications on the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy by stent retrievers in acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion, alternative endovascular approaches have been proposed using first-line aspiration catheters. Several devices are currently available to perform A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique. The Sofia catheter aspiration has been widely used by interventionalists, but data are scarce about its efficacy and safety. Our aim was to report our multicenter thrombectomy experience with first-line Sofia catheter aspiration and to identify independent prognostic factors of clinical and procedural outcomes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We performed a retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic Stroke multicentric registry. Data from consecutive patients who benefited from thrombectomy with a first-line Sofia approach between January 2013 and April 2018 were studied. We excluded other first-line approaches (stent retriever or combined aspiration and stent retriever) and extracranial occlusions. Baseline characteristics, procedural data, and angiographic and clinical outcomes

Fellows’ Journal Club: Focal Cortical Dysplasia and Refractory Epilepsy: Role of Multimodality Imaging and Outcome of Surgery

Fellows’ Journal Club

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of data from 188 consecutive patients with focal cortical dysplasia and refractory epilepsy with at least 2 years of postsurgery follow-up. Predictors of seizure freedom and the sensitivity of neuroimaging modalities were analyzed. MR imaging showed clear-cut FCD in 136 (72.3%) patients. Interictal FDG-PET showed focal hypo-/hypermetabolism in 144 (76.6%); in 110 patients in whom ictal SPECT was performed, focal hyperperfusion was noted in 77 (70.3%). Focal resection was the most common surgery performed in 112 (59.6%) patients. Histopathology revealed type I FCD in 102 (54.3%) patients. At last follow-up, 124 (66.0%) were seizure-free. Complete resection of FCD and type II FCD were predictors of seizure freedom. Localization of FCD on either MR imaging or PET or ictal SPECT had the highest sensitivity for seizure freedom at 97.5%. They conclude that during presurgical multimodality evaluation, localization of the extent of the epileptogenic zone in at least 2 imaging modalities helps achieve seizure freedom in about two-thirds of patients with refractory epilepsy due to FCD. FDG-PET is the most sensitive imaging modality for seizure freedom, especially in patients with type I FCD.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of the most common causes of drug resistant epilepsy. Our aim was to evaluate the role of presurgical noninvasive multimodality imaging techniques in selecting patients with refractory epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia for epilepsy surgery and the influence of the imaging modalities on long-term seizure freedom.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We performed a retrospective analysis of data of 188 consecutive patients with FCD and refractory epilepsy with at least 2 years of postsurgery follow-up. Predictors of seizure freedom and the sensitivity of neuroimaging modalities were analyzed.

RESULTS

MR imaging showed clear-cut FCD in 136 (72.3%) patients. Interictal FDG-PET showed focal hypo-/hypermetabolism

Fellows’ Journal Club: Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MR Imaging of Pediatric Intracranial Tumors: Correlation with Histology and Diagnostic Utility

Fellows’ Journal Club

Between April 2013 and September 2015, seventeen children with intracranial tumors were included in this retrospective study. Intravoxel incoherent motion parameters were fitted using 13 b-values for a biexponential model. The perfusion-free diffusion coefficient, pseudodiffusion coefficient, and perfusion fraction were measured in high- and low-grade tumors. The authors found significant correlations between the histology and IVIM parameters of different pediatric intracranial tumors. These results suggest that IVIM imaging reflects cell density and vascularity across different types of pediatric brain tumors. They also demonstrated that both the diffusion and perfusion parameters measured on IVIM imaging are useful for grading intracranial neuroectodermal tumors in pediatric patients.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging, which simultaneously measures diffusion and perfusion parameters, is promising for brain tumor grading. However, intravoxel incoherent motion imaging has not been tested in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion parameters and histology to assess the accuracy of intravoxel incoherent motion imaging for pediatric intracranial tumor grading.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Between April 2013 and September 2015, 17 children (11 boys, 6 girls; 2 months to 15 years of age) with intracranial tumors were included in this retrospective study. Intravoxel incoherent motion parameters were fitted using 13 b-values for a biexponential model. The perfusion-free diffusion coefficient, pseudodiffusion coefficient, and perfusion fraction were measured in high- and low-grade tumors. These intravoxel incoherent motion parameters and the ADC were compared using the unpaired t test. The correlations between the intravoxel incoherent motion parameters and microvessel density or the MIB-1 index were analyzed using the Spearman correlation test. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate diagnostic performance.

RESULTS

The perfusion-free diffusion coefficient and ADC were lower in high-grade than in low-grade tumors (perfusion-free diffusion coefficient, 0.85 ± 0.40 versus 1.53

Fellows’ Journal Club: Pediatric Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors of the Brain: Identification of Metabolic Subgroups Using In Vivo 1H-MR Spectroscopy

Fellows’ Journal Club

Twenty patients with confirmed atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors who underwent MR spectroscopy were included in this study. In vivo metabolite levels of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors were compared with molecular subtypes assessed by achaete-scute homolog 1 expression. In vivo creatine concentrations were higher in tumors that demonstrated achaete-scute homolog 1 expression compared with those without achaete-scute homolog 1 expression. Additionally, levels of myo-inositol were significantly different, whereas lipids approached significance in these 2 cohorts. Higher brain-specific creatine kinase levels were observed in the cohort with achaete-scute homolog 1 expression.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors are rare, aggressive central nervous system tumors that are predominantly encountered in very young children. Our aim was to determine whether in vivo metabolic profiles correlate with molecular features of central nervous system pediatric atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Twenty confirmed patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors who underwent MR spectroscopy were included in this study. In vivo metabolite levels of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors were compared with molecular subtypes assessed by achaete-scute homolog 1 expression. Additionally, brain-specific creatine kinase levels were determined in tissue samples.

RESULTS

In vivo creatine concentrations were higher in tumors that demonstrated achaete-scute homolog 1 expression compared with those without achaete-scute homolog 1 expression (3.42 ± 1.1 versus 1.8 ± 0.8 IU, P < .01). Additionally, levels of myo-inositol (mI) (9.0 ± 1.5 versus 4.7 ± 3.6 IU, P < .05) were significantly different, whereas lipids approached significance (44 ± 20 versus 80 ± 30 IU, P = .07) in these 2 cohorts. Higher brain-specific creatine kinase levels were observed in the cohort with achaete-scute homolog 1 expression (P < .05). Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation of brain-specific creatine kinase with absolute creatine (P < .05) and myo-inositol (P < .05) concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS

In vivo MR

Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: A Systematic Imaging Approach for CSF Leak Localization and Management Based on MRI and Digital Subtraction Myelography

Editor’s Choice

Using spinal MR imaging to dichotomize patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension into spinal longitudinal extradural CSF collection positive and negative populations accurately determines the nature of their underlying CSF leak (mechanical dural tear versus CSF venous fistula or nerve root sleeve leak), correctly predicts in whom autologous nondirected and directed epidural blood patch may work and in whom it will fail, and finally prescribes the positioning (prone versus decubitus) for subsequent dynamic myelography providing the most efficient pathway to definitive leak localization and repair. Using this systematic approach, the authors have been able to identify the exact site of CSF leakage in 27 (87%) of 31 consecutive patients referred to their institution with MR imaging evidence of SIH.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Localization of the culprit CSF leak in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension can be difficult and is inconsistently achieved. We present a high yield systematic imaging strategy using brain and spine MRI combined with digital subtraction myelography for CSF leak localization.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

During a 2-year period, patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension at our institution underwent MR imaging to determine the presence or absence of a spinal longitudinal extradural collection. Digital subtraction myelography was then performed in patients positive for spinal longitudinal extradural CSF collection primarily in the prone position and in patients negative for spinal longitudinal extradural CSF collection in the lateral decubitus positions.

RESULTS

Thirty-one consecutive patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension were included. The site of CSF leakage was definitively located in 27 (87%). Of these, 21 were positive for spinal longitudinal extradural CSF collection and categorized as having a ventral (type 1, fifteen [48%]) or lateral dural tear (type 2; four [13%]). Ten patients were negative for spinal longitudinal extradural CSF collection and were categorized as having a CSF-venous fistula (type 3,

Metallic Hyperdensity Sign on Noncontrast CT Immediately after Mechanical Thrombectomy Predicts Parenchymal Hemorrhage in Patients with Acute Large-Artery Occlusion

Fellows’ Journal Club

The authors evaluated 198 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion who underwent noncontrast CT immediately after mechanical thrombectomy between January 2014 and September 2018. The metallic hyperdensity sign was defined as a nonpetechial intracerebral hyperdense lesion in the basal ganglia and a maximum CT density of >90 HU. The metallic hyperdensity sign was found in 59 (29.7%) patients, and 51 (25.7%) patients had parenchymal hemorrhage at 24 hours. Patients with the metallic hyperdensity sign are more likely to have parenchymal hemorrhage than those without it.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Parenchymal hemorrhage is a severe complication following mechanical recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion. This study aimed to assess whether the metallic hyperdensity sign on noncontrast CT performed immediately after mechanical thrombectomy can predict parenchymal hemorrhage at 24 hours.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We included consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion who underwent noncontrast CT immediately after mechanical thrombectomy between January 2014 and September 2018. The metallic hyperdensity sign was defined as a nonpetechial intracerebral hyperdense lesion (diameter, ≥1 cm) in the basal ganglia and a maximum CT density of >90 HU. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the metallic hyperdensity sign in predicting parenchymal hemorrhage were calculated.

RESULTS

A total of 198 patients were included. The metallic hyperdensity sign was found in 59 (29.7%) patients, and 51 (25.7%) patients had parenchymal hemorrhage at 24 hours. Patients with the metallic hyperdensity sign are more likely to have parenchymal hemorrhage than those without it (76.3% versus 4.3%, P < .001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the metallic hyperdensity sign in predicting parenchymal hemorrhage were 88.2%, 90.5%, 76.3%, and 95.7%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The presence of the metallic hyperdensity sign on noncontrast

Measuring Glymphatic Flow in Man Using Quantitative Contrast-Enhanced MRI

Fellows’ Journal Club

In this technical report, the authors used MR myelography to demonstrate the feasibility of T1 mapping to quantify contrast concentration to analyze glymphatic flow in man. There is increasing interest in its use as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target in Alzheimer disease.

Abstract

SUMMARY

On the basis of animal models, glymphatic flow disruption is hypothesized to be a factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. We report the first quantitative study of glymphatic flow in man, combining intrathecal administration of gadobutrol with serial T1 mapping to produce contrast concentration maps up to 3 days postinjection, demonstrating performing a quantitative study using the techniques described feasibility and providing data on pharmacokinetics.

Read this article: http://bit.ly/2Io1rWJ

Accurate Patient-Specific Machine Learning Models of Glioblastoma Invasion Using Transfer Learning

Fellows’ Journal Club

The authors evaluated tumor cell density using a transfer learning method that generates individualized patient models, grounded in the wealth of population data, while also detecting and adjusting for interpatient variabilities based on each patient’s own histologic data. They collected 82 image-recorded biopsy samples, from 18 patients with primary GBM. With multivariate modeling, transfer learning improved performance (r = 0.88) compared with one-model-fits-all (r = 0.39). They conclude that transfer learning significantly improves predictive modeling performance for quantifying tumor cell density in glioblastoma.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

MR imaging–based modeling of tumor cell density can substantially improve targeted treatment of glioblastoma. Unfortunately, interpatient variability limits the predictive ability of many modeling approaches. We present a transfer learning method that generates individualized patient models, grounded in the wealth of population data, while also detecting and adjusting for interpatient variabilities based on each patient’s own histologic data.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We recruited patients with primary glioblastoma undergoing image-guided biopsies and preoperative imaging, including contrast-enhanced MR imaging, dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging. We calculated relative cerebral blood volume from DSC-MR imaging and mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy from DTI. Following image coregistration, we assessed tumor cell density for each biopsy and identified corresponding localized MR imaging measurements. We then explored a range of univariate and multivariate predictive models of tumor cell density based on MR imaging measurements in a generalized one-model-fits-all approach. We then implemented both univariate and multivariate individualized transfer learning predictive models, which harness the available population-level data but allow individual variability in their predictions. Finally, we compared Pearson correlation coefficients and mean absolute error between the individualized transfer learning and generalized one-model-fits-all models.

RESULTS

Tumor cell density significantly correlated with relative CBV (r = 0.33, P < .001), and T1-weighted postcontrast (r =

Neuroimaging-Based Classification Algorithm for Predicting 1p/19q-Codeletion Status in IDH-Mutant Lower Grade Gliomas

Fellows’ Journal Club

One hundred two IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas with preoperative MR imaging and known 1p/19q status from The Cancer Genome Atlas composed a training dataset. Two neuroradiologists in consensus analyzed the training dataset for various imaging features: tumor or cyst texture, margins, cortical infiltration, T2-FLAIR mismatch, tumor cyst, T2* susceptibility, hydrocephalus, midline shift, maximum dimension, primary lobe, necrosis, enhancement, edema, and gliomatosis. Statistical analysis of the training data produced a multivariate classification model for codeletion prediction based on a subset of MR imaging features and patient age. Training dataset analysis produced a 2-step classification algorithm with 86.3% codeletion prediction accuracy, based on the following: 1) the presence of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign, which was 100% predictive of noncodeleted lower grade gliomas; and 2) a logistic regression model based on texture, patient age, T2* susceptibility, primary lobe, and hydrocephalus. Independent validation of the classification algorithm rendered codeletion prediction accuracies of 81.1% and 79.2% in 2 independent readers.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant lower grade gliomas are classified as oligodendrogliomas or diffuse astrocytomas based on 1p/19q-codeletion status. We aimed to test and validate neuroradiologists’ performances in predicting the codeletion status of IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas based on simple neuroimaging metrics.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

One hundred two IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas with preoperative MR imaging and known 1p/19q status from The Cancer Genome Atlas composed a training dataset. Two neuroradiologists in consensus analyzed the training dataset for various imaging features: tumor or cyst texture, margins, cortical infiltration, T2-FLAIR mismatch, tumor cyst, T2* susceptibility, hydrocephalus, midline shift, maximum dimension, primary lobe, necrosis, enhancement, edema, and gliomatosis. Statistical analysis of the training data produced a multivariate classification model for codeletion prediction based on a subset of MR imaging features and patient age. To validate the classification model, 2 different independent neuroradiologists