Journal Scan – This Month in Other Journals, August 2017

Charidimou A, Boulouis G, Xiong L, et al. Cortical superficial siderosis and first-ever cerebral hemorrhage in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Neurology. 2017;88(17):1607-1614. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000003866.

Cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) on T2*-GRE or SWI is a strong hemorrhagic signature of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)—a common small vessel disease characterized by cerebrovascular amyloid deposition affecting superficial cortical microvascular networks, leading to spontaneous lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Cortical superficial siderosis results from bleeding episodes within or adjacent to cortical sulci, presumably from amyloid-laden superficial cortical and leptomeningeal arterioles. Cortical superficial siderosis is a common manifestation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, being found in 40%–60% of patients.

In this study, consecutive patients meeting modified Boston criteria for probable CAA in the absence of ICH from a single-center cohort were analyzed. Cortical superficial siderosis and other small vessel disease MRI markers were assessed according to recent consensus recommendations. Patients were followed prospectively for future incident symptomatic lobar ICH.

The cohort included 236 patients with probable CAA without lobar ICH at baseline. Cortical superficial siderosis prevalence was 34%. During a median follow-up of 3.26 years, 27 of 236 patients (11.4%) experienced a first-ever symptomatic lobar ICH. Cortical superficial siderosis was a predictor of time until first ICH. The risk of symptomatic ICH at 5 years of follow-up was 19% for patients with cortical superficial siderosis at baseline vs 6% for patients without cortical superficial siderosis. In multivariable Cox regression models, cortical superficial siderosis presence was the only independent predictor of increased symptomatic ICH risk during follow-up.

The authors found that cortical superficial siderosis on T2*-GRE/SWI MRI is associated with an increased risk of future first-ever symptomatic lobar ICH. The prognostic value of cSS in this setting was strong and independent of age and other neuroimaging markers of CAA severity, including lobar cerebral microbleed burden and WMH. Hence, cortical …

Volumetric Analysis from a Harmonized Multisite Brain MRI Study of a Single Subject with Multiple Sclerosis

Fellows’ Journal Club

The North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Cooperative steering committee developed a uniform high-resolution 3T MR imaging protocol relevant to the quantification of cerebral lesions and atrophy and implemented it at 7 sites across the United States. They assessed intersite variability in scan data, by imaging a volunteer with relapsing-remitting MS with a scan-rescan at each site. In multicenter studies with consistent scanner field strength and manufacturer after protocol harmonization, systematic differences can lead to severe biases in volumetric analyses.

Differentiation between Treatment-Induced Necrosis and Recurrent Tumors in Patients with Metastatic Brain Tumors: Comparison among 11C-Methionine-PET, FDG-PET, MR Permeability Imaging, and MRI-ADC—Preliminary Results

Editor’s Choice

The authors evaluated the feasibility of MR permeability imaging by comparison with 11C-methionine-PET, FDG-PET, and DWI for differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent tumors in 15 patients with 18 lesions following gamma knife radiosurgery. The area under the ROC curve for differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent tumors was the best for the 11C-methionine ratio (0.90) followed by the contrast-enhancement ratio (0.81), maximum slope of increase (millimole/second) (0.80), and the initial area under the signal intensity–time curve (0.78). They conclude that PET using 11C-methionine may be superior to MR permeability imaging, ADC, and FDG-PET for differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent tumors after gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors.

TIPIC Syndrome: Beyond the Myth of Carotidynia, a New Distinct Unclassified Entity

Fellows’ Journal Club

This study included 47 patients from 10 centers presenting between January 2009 through April 2016with acute neck pain or tenderness and at least 1 cervical image showing unclassified carotid abnormalities. The authors conducted a systematic, retrospective study of their medical charts and diagnostic and follow-up imaging. All patients presented with acute neck pain, and 8 presented with transient neurologic symptoms. Imaging showed an eccentric pericarotidian infiltration in all patients. An intimal soft plaque was noted in 16 patients, and a mild luminal narrowing was noted in 16 patients. The authors conclude that this study improves the description of an unclassified, clinico-radiologic entity, which could be described by the proposed acronym: Transient Perivascular Inflammation of the Carotid artery (TIPIC) syndrome.

Temporary Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization as a Treatment Option for Wide-Neck Aneurysms

Editor’s Choice

The authors intended to treat 33 aneurysms between January 2010 and December 2015 with temporary stent-assisted coiling, which formed the series for this study. Incidental and acutely ruptured aneurysms were included. Sufficient occlusion was achieved in 97.1% of the cases. In 94%, the stent could be fully recovered. Complications occurred in 5 patients (14.7%). They conclude that temporary stent-assisted coiling is an effective technique for the treatment of wide-neck aneurysms. Safety is comparable with that of stent-assisted coiling and coiling with balloon remodeling.

Head and Neck Ultrasonography: Essential and Extended Applications, 2nd Edition

Orloff LA. Head and Neck Ultrasonography: Essential and Extended Applications. 2nd ed. Plural Publishing; 2017; 544 pp; $299.95

Cover of Orloff

The second edition of Head and Neck Ultrasonography: Essential and Extended Applications is an inclusive and detailed review of office-based and intraoperative ultrasonography. The book caters to a diverse audience, including radiologists, surgeons, and clinicians such as endocrinologists.

This publication is organized into 21 chapters covering a diverse range of topics. The initial chapters outline the history of head and neck ultrasonography, as well as basic US physics and current equipment and techniques, which builds on the knowledge base of the reader. There is also a chapter on healthy head and neck anatomy, which may serve as a good review for some before gaining access to more advanced material.

The diagnostic chapters may be of particular interest to general radiologists, neuroradiologists, and pediatric radiologists. These range from discussions of more common applications, such as thyroid and parathyroid disease, to more specialized knowledge, such as salivary gland and laryngeal ultrasonography.

Chapters on transesophageal and endobronchial ultrasound, as well as interventional ultrasonography, contain text covering anatomy, pathology, and procedural technical aspects that are geared towards a more procedurally inclined audience, including interventional radiologists, otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, and pulmonologists, as well as endocrinologists who perform office-based diagnostic procedures, such as US-guided FNA.

One distinct characteristic throughout the book is its particular attention to descriptive and pictorial consideration of ultrasonographic technique, which might be of interest to the radiologist who is less experienced in head and neck “hands-on“ scanning.

Image quality is overall robust and representative illustrations are clear, with several containing 2 axes depicting the same finding. A few figures are rendered in lower resolution, likely due to inherent technique or the equipment utilized.

Sonographic dynamic clips are also included on the companion website, providing a …

Prevalence of Traumatic Findings on Routine MRI in a Large Cohort of Professional Fighters

Fellows’ Journal Club

Conventional 3T MR imaging was used to assess 499 fighters (boxers, mixed martial artists, and martial artists) and 62 controls for nonspecific WM changes, cerebral microhemorrhage, cavum septum pellucidum, and cavum vergae. Fighters had an increased prevalence of cerebral microhemorrhage (4.2% versus 0% for controls), cavum septum pellucidum (53.1% versus 17.7% for controls), and cavum vergae (14.4% versus 0% for controls). This study assessed MR imaging findings in a large cohort demonstrating a significantly increased prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum among fighters. Although cerebral microhemorrhages were higher in fighters than in controls, this finding was not statistically significant.

Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging and Motor Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke

Editor’s Choice

The authors evaluated 17 patients with stroke who underwent brain diffusional kurtosis imaging within 4 days after the onset of symptoms. Neurologic evaluation included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor scale in the acute phase and 3 months poststroke. The largest percentage signal changes of the lesioned hemisphere corticospinal tract were observed with axial kurtosis, with an average 12% increase compared with the contralateral corticospinal tract. The strongest associations between the 3-month Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor scale score and diffusion metrics were found for the lesioned/contralateral hemisphere corticospinal tract mean kurtosis and axial kurtosis ratios. They conclude that diffusion metrics related to kurtosis were found to be more sensitive than conventional diffusivity metrics to early poststroke corticospinal tract microstructural changes.

Baseline Survey of the Neuroradiology Work Environment in the United States with Reported Trends in Clinical Work, Nonclinical Work, Perceptions of Trainees, and Burnout Metrics

Fellows’ Journal Club

A voluntary survey was sent to practicing and out-of-training members of the ASNR. Four hundred thirty-two respondents across a broad range of experience reported: 93% with workdays extending at least 1 hour past expected; 71.9% reading more cases per hour compared with previous years; 79.5% sometimes-to-always interpreting cases faster than comfortable for optimal interpretation; and 67.8% sometimes or more often with inadequate time to discuss abnormal results. Burnout symptoms ranged between 49% and 75%. The trends and the correlations should be concerning to the leaders of radiology and warrant further monitoring.

The Use of Noncontrast Quantitative MRI to Detect Gadolinium-Enhancing Multiple Sclerosis Brain Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Editor’s Choice

The authors evaluated 37 journal articles that included 985 patients with MS who had MR imaging in which T1-weighted postcontrast sequences were compared with noncontrast sequences obtained during the same MR imaging examination by using ROI analysis of individual MS lesions. DTI-based fractional anisotropy values were significantly different between enhancing and nonenhancing lesions, with enhancing lesions showing decreased FA. None of the other most frequently studied MR imaging biomarkers (mean diffusivity, magnetization transfer ratio, or ADC) were significantly different between enhancing and nonenhancing lesions. They conclude that noncontrast MR imaging techniques, such as DTI-based FA, can assess MS lesion acuity without gadolinium.